Biofuels are renewable liquid or gas fuels used mainly in transport. Plant-based Biofuels can be made from a variety of plant sources. Some are produced by the extraction of sugar or starch from crops and then fermenting it to make alcohol. Other biofuels are made by the decaying of organic matter such as municipal wastes, food industry by-products and wastes, and the capturing of the resultant gases. Biofuels for heating may also be derived from forestry (ie. wood pellets).
Miscanthus (a tall, woody grass), Willow and forestry waste are the best options in terms of sustainability. Rapeseed is also grown as a biofuel but is not any better than fossil fuels in terms of climate and emissions.
Biodiesel can be used in diesel-powered vehicles or blended with diesel fuel. It can be made from vegetable oils including rapeseed oil, recycled vegetable oils (UCO), palm oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil.
Bioethanol typically comes from wheat, corn, barley, rye and sugar beet. It is typically blended with gasoline and used in petrol vehicles.
Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) is a form of renewable diesel which can be used as a direct replacement for diesel or deployed in diesel in higher concentrations than B7 without any technical issues.
Biomethane is a renewable fuel produced by removing impurities from biogas and can be used in natural gas vehicles. (Biogas is produced by the decomposition of organic waste). Biomethane can also be used to provide heat and electricity.
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